The American Revolution refers to a seismic movement in history. This revolution led to the formation of United States, a great federal democratic republic whose economic and military power have been felt across the world. This pivotal event in world history that took place between 1765 and 1783. It marked the political separation of thirteen British colonies in North America from the British Empire and led to the formation of the United States of America.
Factors that led to the outbreak of revolution
The British Government imposed various taxes without colonial representation and exploited the colonies through Mercantilism. British believed that these 13 colonies must serve the motherland. The several acts were passed such as Stamp Act, Townshend Act, Tea Act, Staple Act, and Sugar Act. The reason behind taxation to overcome the war burden between French and British colonies with their respective allies in 1754. Inspite of the victory the Great Britain find itself over indebted by the war efforts and intends to take advantage of its colonies through coercive imposition of new taxes.
The tensions arose due to unfavorable series of taxes and laws against the 13 Colonies. The rebellion further fueled up when Stamp Act was imposed. Colonies must pay stamp duties on all official paper documents such as magazines, newspaper, etc. Colonies opposed this move and clarified that “No Taxation without Representation”. To curb this British militarize the colonies and imposed a Quartering Act. Colonies were bound to provide, if necessary, housing, food, and shelter to Red Coats Soldiers through this act.
On March 1770 in the street of Boston, skirmishes take place between British soldiers and public and 05 civilians died. In these circumstances and tensions, the event occurred known as Boston Tea Party. British East India Company in financial crisis to sell their tea stock due to duties. British parliament authorized East India Company to sell duty free tea stock in America. In this way, British can control the settlers smuggling of tea from Dutch as well as provide boost to the East India Company. On Dec 1773, the Minutemen- son of liberty ceased the ships at Boston port and threw all the tea stock into the sea. In response, Britain imposed punitive measures and passed the Intolerable Act 1774. British controlled the local government and courts.
To counter these measures of British 13 colonies meet in Philadelphia to form First Continental Congress. The two major resolutions were under considerations known as Suffolk Resolve and Declaration of Rights & Grievances.
They also decided to boycott the British imports. The formal battle initiated between British and 13 colonies at Concord and Lexington. On April 1775, the first shots were fired in Lexington marking the beginning of the great American Revolution. Second Continental Congress meeting held in Philadelphia and the father of America George Washington appointed as the Army Chief. On July 04, 1776, all 13 colonies declared independence and adopted the United States declaration drafted by Thomas Jefferson.
The text of the declaration was based on the fundamental rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Spain and French colonies also provided support to 13 colonies and finally after series of battles, British accepted their defeat. The treaty of Paris signed between British and 13 Colonies in 1783. British recognized the United States of America.
USA become the first colony to gain independence. In just 150 years, a new nation would become the world’s leading economic and military power. The foundation of USA laid on the strong democratic principle of life, liberty and provision of rights that makes America great.