Though major portion of the land of Uzbekistan is desert, but it was always fertile to give birth renowned and learned scholars, this land is rightly proud of her Astronomers like Ulugh Beg, Philosophers like Ibn Sina, Mathematicians like Al Khawrzami and so many Scientists and renowned Poets.
This land is also the birth place of world fame warriors, and conquerors like Tamerlane and Zaheer ud Din Baber. Tamerlane conquered the substantial part of the then known world, and Zaheer ud Din Baber, the descendant of Tamerlane, conquered India and established a strong empire, that lasted for 325 years.
During the reign of Tamerlane, the city of Samarkand was not only the capital of his vast empire but also was regarded the jewel of the world, and the city of Bukhara was considered the second magnificent and beautiful city of the empire. The beauty, glory and magnificence of these two cities was unparalleled, and their attraction for visitors was amazing.
The visitors become impressed by the charm and beauty of these cities. Hafiz Shirazi, the famous Persian Poet of that time was very much impressed by the splendor and magnificence of Samarkand and Bukhara. He in a poetic way portrayed their magnificence and glory. He expressed this in his most famous composed couplet, “If myTurkish sweetheart could conquer my heart I would gift her the cities of Samarkand and Bukhara in return of her mole.”
It is narrated, that when Tamerlane heard this composed couplet, he flew in rage and sent for Hafiz Shirazi in his magnificent and dazzling
Court. When the impoverished and detrioated poet was brought in the Court, the Emperor enquired him about his composed couplet, have you dare to compose it?
Hafiz, replied yes my lord.
At this unexpected reply Tamerlane roared like a lion, do you know what cost I have paid to build up and glorify these cities, and you are daring to bestow these to your sweetheart in return of her mole, the poet remained silent for a moment, then he replied confidently, my lord, this is the result of such extravagances that I have been reduced to this position, you are looking. The Emperor amused and astonished at this witty reply, he gave him pardon, and ordered the incharge of exchequer to bestow the poet with costly gifts and huge wealth.
This all shows about the splendor, magnificence, beauty and importance of the cities of Bukhara and Samarkand during Tamerlane’s time.
When we read Tuzk-e-Babri, the autobiography of Baber, we come to know about the beauty of different parts of Uzbekistan, where the great conqueror of India was born and brought up, he never came out from the memories of his ancestrals’ land till his death. He praised in his autobiography, the beauty of gardens, sweetness of melons and cleanliness of his ancestral land.
Though he could never retired back to his homeland, but he always remained attached in lovely memories of that land. To commemorate his home land, he ordered to build in different parts of India the similar forts, gardens, masajids and other buildings, those he lost in his paternal country Uzbekistan.
The famous Babri masjid built by Baber at Ayodhya in India was one of those historical monuments, that was unfortunately hatefully targeted and demolished by the hindu extremists of B.J.P. of the present ruling party of India. That is the worst example of hate with Baber, the founder of Tamerlane’s Empire in India, and his historical monuments, that commemorate the conquest of Baber.
The historic and ancient cities of Samarkand and Bukhara are always loved and respected by the muslims of Pakistan, because of their spiritual and religious personalities belong to that soil and are buried there.
The cities of Samarkand and Bukhara are not only the ancestral cities of millions of the inhabitants of Pakistan, whose forefathers migrated from there, but are also loved and regarded sacred for the burial place of great muslim scholars and holy persons to whom they consider their own.
There in the city of Samarkand, is situated the most famous and holy tomb of imam Muhammad Ismael Bukhari. He was born in Bukhara and buried in Samarkand. He is the most renowned and is respectable for his collection of the narrations of the Holy Prophet Muhammad ( S.A.W.). The second holy person buried there is Qutham ibn Abbas R.A. the cousin of the Holy Prophet of Islam.
The tomb of Danyal the respected prophet of all muslims, Christians and jews is also there.The tombs of these sacred personalities are source of respect and religious tourism to Uzbekistan.
The old city contains some of the best and finest ancient historical buildings of Central Asian architecture, including several dating from the time when Samarkand was Tamerlane’s Capital city, there include the Great Emperor Tamerlane’s tomb called the Gur-e-Amir Mausoleum built in the second half of fifteenth century, and the tomb of his son and wife. The Grand Masjid of BiBi Khanum, that was commissioned by Tamerlane’s favorite Chinese wife, which is a source of attraction for the tourists from all over the world.
Registan Square, an important and impressive public square in old city, is fronted by several madrassas (islamic schools), that of Tamerlane’s grandson the astronomer Ulagh Beg of 15th century. The city has several other mausoleums, madrassas and mosques dating from 15th to 17th centuries.
The main features of Samarkands’ ancient buildings are their splendid domes having their fascinating colors, their decorations in majorca mosaic, gold and marble.
The old portion of Samarkand was declared in 2001,the World Heritage by UNESCO.
The new section of Samarkand is mostly built and extended during Russian and Soviet Union era at that time, public buildings, houses, parks and theatres were built, a university, higher education institutions for the students were also made. There are institutions for agriculture, medicine, trade and architecture. Since1888, with the arrival of Railways the city of Samarkand became a railway junction and derived its’ ancient commercial position of medieval times, when it was the junction of trade routes from China and India.
As regards the city of Bukhara is concerned it is the well preserved ancient city of Central Asia, and the most perfect example of a medieval city. This will always be loved as a sacred city because of the birth place of Imam Muhammad Ismael Bukhari the collector of the Hadiths (Saying and practices of The Holy Prophet Muhammad S.A.W.), the burial place of Ismail Samani, whose tomb is a master piece of 10th century Muslim architecture.
The great mystic person Bahauddin Naqshbandi (May Allah bless him) is also buried in that land. Millions of his followers are living in Pakistan. Naqshbandi sufi cult is a popular Sufi cult all over the world.
Many other muslim Sufies and scholars are also buried in this sacred city. This city remained a great centre of knowledge and intellectual activities during passed centuries, hundreds of madrassas and masajids were the centre of teaching, learning and intellectual growth of the students, who used to come here from different countries.
The magnificent buildings of those masajids and madrassas are still seen by the visitors, coming from all corners of the world. During Tamerlane’s time the glory of this city was at peak and it’s attraction for visitors, traders and learned people remained the topic of writers and historians.In present days thousands of tourists come here and visit it’s historical monoments including Kalyan minaret, Chashma Ayub Shrine and the mosques, the Kalyan Minaret in ancient times was considered the tallest one, in Central Asia, it is narrated that Genghis Khan was so amazed to see it’s hight and beauty that he spared it as he raged across the area. The tourists in huge number come to visit the ancient monuments, madrassas. The palaces and forts of the last Amir of Bukhara are also attractive for the tourists. The Govt. of Uzbekistan is very generous to promote tourism and facilitating to tourists who come there. The tourists are the source of handsome income for Uzbekistan. The cities of Samarkand and Bukhara are the major cities that plays an important role in the enhancement of tourism.
Infact The Republic of Uzbekistan, is the dreamland for the tourists and is fully capable to attract millions of tourists every year from every corner of the World.